Nano Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd. - Heart Stent Manufacturing Company Surat, India
Nano Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd. - Heart Stent Manufacturing Company Surat, India

Introduction to the Human Heart

About the size of our fist, heart is the most vital organ which supplies blood to every part of the body. Human heart is comprises of four chambers, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Atrium and Left Ventricle. Right side of the heart receives blood which is low in oxygen from the veins all over the body, and pumps blood through pulmonary artery in the lungs where it is re-oxygenated. Whereas, the left side of the heart receives this oxygen rich blood from the lungs and then through Aorta (the body's main artery) this oxygen rich blood is pumped to other parts of the body by a complex network of arteries, arterioles and capillaries. The oxygen rich blood supplies essential nutrients to different body tissues while picking up carbon dioxide and other waste material from them. This deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium of the heart and the entire cycle begins again.

Introduction to the Human Heart - Patient Area - Nano Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd. - Heart Stent Manufacturing Company Surat, India

Coronary Arteries

The heart is composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue that continuously contracts and relaxes, so it must have a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. The coronary arteries are the network of blood vessels that carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cardiac muscle tissue.

Two coronary arteries, referred to as the "left" and "right" coronary arteries, emerge from the beginning of the aorta, near the top of the heart. The initial segment of the left coronary artery (LAD) is called the left main coronary. It branches into two slightly smaller arteries: the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the left circumflex coronary artery.

Coronary Arteries - Patient Area - Nano Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd. - Heart Stent Manufacturing Company Surat, India

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary Artery Disease is an ailment in which the coronary arteries get clogged by fatty deposits know as "Plaque". Coronary arteries are the major arteries that supply blood, oxygen and nutrients to the heart. If fat build up occurs in one or more of the coronary arteries then it may result in Heart Attack. This may even cause Angina or Chest pain due to insufficient supply of blood/oxygen to the heart muscles. The Plaque deposited on the interior wall of coronary arteries may rupture and can lead to blood clotting. If the clot becomes large enough, it can block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the portion of heart muscle fed by the artery. Blocked blood flow to the heart muscle ultimately causes a heart attack.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Patient Area - Nano Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd. - Heart Stent Manufacturing Company Surat, India

PTCA (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty)

What is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)?

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) opens blocked coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and restores arterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open heart surgery. (Percutaneous means through the skin), (Transluminal means in the channel or lumen of a blood vessel)

Angioplasty physically opens the channel of diseased arterial segments, relieves the recurrence of chest pain, increases the quality of life and reduces other complications of the disease. The blockage is due to deposition of fatty material within the walls of the arteries. This buildup causes the inside of the arteries to become rough and narrowed, limiting the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.

How does the procedure works?

  • Angioplasty is usually carried out in a room called a catheterization room, with X-ray equipment to take a picture of your arteries. You will lie on an X-ray table. You will be put on a heart monitor.
  • The procedure is usually done through the artery of groin region. The doctor gives a local anesthetic so that you don't feel the pain. Then a small cut in made in the skin through which a thin tube call the catheter is inserted in your body which forms a tunnel through which Angioplasty procedure will be done.
  • There will be several monitor screens in the room, showing your vital signs, the images of the catheter being moved through the body into the heart, and the structures of the heart as the dye is injected.
  • By watching on a special X-ray screen, the doctor can move the catheter into the artery. The catheter with a thin, expandable balloon on the end is passed to the blockage.
  • When the catheter gets to the narrow part in your artery, the doctor blows up the balloon, squashing the fatty patches on the inside walls of the artery.. Usually the catheter carries a short hollow tube made of stainless steel/ cobalt chromium (called a stent). This opens out as the balloon is blown up and is left inside your artery. It's like a tiny piece of scaffolding that holds the artery open. If you do have a stent, the doctor will give you drugs to stop blood clots forming around it.
  • The doctor will check that the artery has been widened enough to allow blood to flow through more easily.
  • Then the catheter is taken out and small bandage is applied on the cut area to stop the bleeding.

Before the Procedure

  • You will need to fast for a certain period of time prior to the procedure.
  • Notify your physician:
    • If you have ever had a reaction to any contrast dye, or if you are allergic to iodine.
    • If you are sensitive to or are allergic to any medications, latex, tape, and anesthetic agents (local and general)
    • If you have heart valve disease, as you may need to Receive an antibiotic prior to the procedure.
    • If you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medications, aspirin, or other medications that affect blood clotting.
    • If you have a pacemaker.
    • If you are pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant.
  • Your physician may request a blood test prior to the procedure to determine how long it takes your blood to clot.
  • You may receive a sedative prior to the procedure to help you relax.
  • The area around the catheter insertion (groin area) may be shaved.

After the Procedure

Bed rest may vary from two to six hours depending on your specific condition. You may be given medication for pain or discomfort related to the insertion site or having to lie flat and still for a prolonged period. You will be encouraged to drink water and other fluids to help flush the contrast dye from your body.